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Japanese particles are small words that indicate relations of words within a sentence. Most of Japanese learners are not found of particles and most teachers don’t make things easier. If you have trouble keeping all the particles straight, this guide will illuminate you by explaining how to perfectly use them. Take on the quiz at the end of this guide to test your understanding of Japanese Particles!
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How to use Japanese Particles?
は (wa) follows the topic the speaker wants to talk about. Therefore, wa（は）is often called topic marking particle. The “topic” is often the grammatical subject, but can be anything (including the grammatical object, and sometimes the verb), and it may also follow some other particles.
も (mo) functions as “also” or “too” in English. It is used to indicate that something that has pviously been stated also holds true for the item currently under discussion. It replaces ga, wa or o when used.
Watashi wa furansujin desu.
I am French.
Watashi mo furansujin desu.
I am also French.
に (ni) indicates a place toward where someone or something moves. It is pceded by the name of the place and followed by a verb which indicates a moving action such as iku (行く) “to go.”
It is also used with giving/receiving verbs and can then mean “from”.
In the case of passive verbs, it marks the grammatical agent, making it the same as “by” in English. (i.e. “my wallet was stolen by my brother.” ).
に is also used to indicate the location of existence when combined with the verbs いる or ある, making it the Japanese version of “at” (in some instances).
へ (e) is basically the same as に, except it emphasizes direction over arrival. The main difference is usage. へ is never used as “from”, “by”, “at”.
In addition, the particle の can follow the へ particle directly, whereas it cannot follow に.
で (de) is used to indicate location of an action. The performer of the action (the subject) is followed by either of the particles wa or ga, and the place is followed by de.
However it can’t be used with with the verbs いる or ある.
が (ga) marks the grammatical subject of a sentence when it is first introduced to a conversation. It can also be used to join sentences, like the word “but”, but that が is technically a different word. The particle が can also be used to emphasize the subject or distinguish it from others. While は is used when a question word (who, where, etc) comes after the topic in the sentence (レストランはどこですか。), we use the particle が when the question word is the subject or part of it.
や (ya) is used in the same way as the first sense of と, but the list is not exhaustive. It means “such things as A, B, and C”.
の (no) indicates possession (functioning like the English “apostrophe-S”). In the structure A no B, B belongs to A, however, many nouns act like adjectives when followed by no.
It directly follows nouns and noun phrases.
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